Case study | Energy and energy efficiency, Maximising alternative / renewable energy integration

Replacing Fossil Fuel-based thermal generation with Renewable Fuel (Biomass, Biofuel) in the Textile and Garments Sector


Bangladesh and Pakistan rely heavily on fossil fuels for energy, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass fuel offers a greener alternative, but its use is limited. Major fashion brands, like H&M, are committed to reducing their carbon footprint. H&M partnered with GIZ's regional project Promoting Sustainability in the Textile and Garment Industry in Asia (FABRIC) to explore using renewable fuels like biomass in textile and garment factories. This case study presents Phase-1, focusing on the pre-feasibility of adopting biomass and solar energy in these sectors in Bangladesh and Pakistan.

Main features and components

  1. Bio-Mass Analysis: Examined availability and types of biomass fuels, their global warming potential, and calorific values in comparison to natural gas. Results show potential for reducing GHG emissions.
  2. Bio-Mass Challenges: Identified supply chain issues, price fluctuations, and space requirements as challenges for adopting biomass fuels.
  3. Solar Water Heaters: Evaluated the feasibility of using solar water heaters to reduce steam demand and GHG emissions, with considerations for intermittent warm water needs.
  4. Solar PV: Explored the potential of solar PV systems for reducing grid electricity dependence. Found feasibility, especially when replacing grid power.

Lessons learnt

  • Natural gas is the cheapest but emits GHGs. Biomass fuels offer greener options but face supply chain challenges.
  • Solar water heaters can be effective in factories with stable hot water needs.
  • Solar PV systems are feasible but may have longer payback periods when replacing natural gas power.


Options for further study include:

  • Option-1: Pilot biomass adoption in a selected supplier with efficiency improvements, new biomass boilers, and GHG reduction strategies.
  • Option-2: Pilot solar energy adoption, assess potential, select suitable systems, conduct pre-feasibility and financial analysis.



Phase of intervention

Operating SIA, Resource efficiency

Level of intervention

Park management





Target groups

Company, SME, Industrial area management and operator